They Came Before Columbus Pdf

📒They Came Before Columbus ✍ Ivan Van Sertima

They Came Before Columbus PDF
✏Book Title : They Came Before Columbus
✏Author : Ivan Van Sertima
✏Publisher : Random House Incorporated
✏Release Date : 2003
✏Pages : 284
✏ISBN : UCSC:32106017436624
✏Available Language : English, Spanish, And French

✏They Came Before Columbus Book Summary : Examines cultural analogies between Native Americans and Africans, offering evidence of the presence of African explorers in the New World centuries before the arrival of Columbus.

📒Early America Revisited ✍ Ivan Van Sertima

Early America Revisited PDF
✏Book Title : Early America Revisited
✏Author : Ivan Van Sertima
✏Publisher : Transaction Publishers
✏Release Date : 1998
✏Pages : 209
✏ISBN : 0765804638
✏Available Language : English, Spanish, And French

✏Early America Revisited Book Summary : Early America Revisited is a vigorous defense and amplification of Ivan Van Sertima's classic work, They Came Before Columbus. The book makes a carefully balanced case for an African presence in America before Columbus' voyages. At the same time, the work in no way denies the importance of the Columbus voyages for opening up the New World to Europe, and hence changing the economic and political map of the world for all time. Van Sertima's critical cutting edge is that there is an anthropological and ethnographic dimension to the process of discovery, one in which black Africans of non-European origins played a central role. He marshals literary and pictorial evidence and shows its authenticity to be beyond question. The impact of these early discoveries is of far more than historical interest. They serve as a basis to examine anew the study of culture contacts between civilizations, and in so doing, offer a serious base to a multifaceted re-examination of earlier hypotheses of influences in both directions. Early America Revisited provides anthropological evidence about the physical presence of Africans in pre-Columbian America. It is also the study of how two peoples and cultures can lead to cross-fertilization. The borrowing of artifacts and ideas does not mean that the outsider is superior to the native, or that indigenous cultures are insignificant. Van Sertima contends that such relationships can be unpleasant as well as pleasant, conflictual as well as consensual. But, whatever the character of the interaction, its very existence merits awareness. This book is likely to engender disputes and disagreements. But there is no question that it will enrich the study of a wide range of subjects, from archaeology to anthropology, and result in profound changes in the reordering of historical priorities and pedagogy. It should be of wide interest to social scientists, historians, and all those for whom the question of race and culture is a central facet of their own work and lives. Jacqueline L. Patten Van Sertima, who is responsible for the photographic materials in this volume, has had her work exhibited at the Museum of the City of New York, the National Urban League, Columbia University, and many galleries across the country. Her publications include The Black Photographers Annual and Black Photographers.

📒Egypt Revisited ✍ Ivan Van Sertima

Egypt Revisited PDF
✏Book Title : Egypt Revisited
✏Author : Ivan Van Sertima
✏Publisher : Transaction Publishers
✏Release Date : 1989-01-01
✏Pages : 441
✏ISBN : 0887387993
✏Available Language : English, Spanish, And French

✏Egypt Revisited Book Summary : This volume represents a new departure in the examination of Egypt's place in the African context. It brings together the latest research of the 1980s on Nile Valley civilizations, what they achieved, and their impact on Africa and the world. The authors take an "Afrocentric" in contrast to a "Eurocentric" perspective in their studies of the birthplace of civilization. This volume includes sections on the race and origin of the ancient Egyptians, black dynasties and rulers, Egyptian science and philosophy, and great Egyptologists. It sheds new light on neglected aspects of history. Ivan Van Sertima is professor of African studies, Rutgers University, and editor of the Journal of African Civilizations. He is the author of They Came Before Columbus: The African Presence in Ancient America, winner of the Clarence L. Holte International Prize.

📒The Caribbean Before Columbus ✍ William F. Keegan

The Caribbean Before Columbus PDF
✏Book Title : The Caribbean Before Columbus
✏Author : William F. Keegan
✏Publisher : Oxford University Press
✏Release Date : 2017-02-01
✏Pages : 360
✏ISBN : 9780190605254
✏Available Language : English, Spanish, And French

✏The Caribbean Before Columbus Book Summary : The Caribbean before Columbus is a new synthesis of the region's insular history. It combines the results of the authors' 55 years of archaeological research on almost every island in the three archipelagoes with that of their numerous colleagues and collaborators. The presentation operates on multiple scales: temporal, spatial, local, regional, environmental, social, and political. In addition, individual sites are used to highlight specific issues. For the first time, the complete histories of the major islands and island groups are elucidated, and new insights are gained through inter-island comparisons. The book takes a step back from current debates regarding nomenclature to offer a common foundation and the opportunity for a fresh beginning. In this regard the original concepts of series and ages provide structure, and the diversity of expressions subsumed by these concepts is embraced. Historical names, such as Taino and Lucayan, are avoided. The authors challenge the long-held conventional wisdom concerning island colonization, societal organization, interaction and transculturation, inter- and intra-regional transactions (exchange), and other basic elements of cultural development and change. The emphasis is on those elements that unite the Bahamas, Lesser Antilles, and Greater Antilles as a culture area, and also on their divergent pathways. Colonization is presented as a multifaceted wave-like process. Continuing ties to the surrounding mainland are highlighted. Interactions between residents and new colonists are recognized, with individual histories contingent on these historical interactions. New solutions are offered to the "Huecoid problem" the "Carib problem," the "Taino problem," and the evolution of social complexity, especially in Puerto Rico.These solutions req

Africans And Native Americans PDF
✏Book Title : Africans and Native Americans
✏Author : Jack D. Forbes
✏Publisher : University of Illinois Press
✏Release Date : 1993-03
✏Pages : 344
✏ISBN : 025206321X
✏Available Language : English, Spanish, And French

✏Africans and Native Americans Book Summary : This volume will revise the way we look at the modern populations of Latin America and North America by providing a totally new view of the history of Native American and African American peoples throughout the hemisphere. Africans and Native Americans explores key issues relating to the evolution of racial terminology and European colonialists' perceptions of color, analyzing the development of color classification systems and the specific evolution of key terms such as black, mulatto, and mestizo, which no longer carry their original meanings. Jack Forbes presents strong evidence that Native American and African contacts began in Europe, Africa, and the Caribbean and that Native Americans may have crossed the Atlantic long before Columbus.

Christopher Columbus And The Afrikan Holocaust PDF
✏Book Title : Christopher Columbus and the Afrikan Holocaust
✏Author : John Henrik Clarke
✏Publisher : Eworld
✏Release Date : 2011
✏Pages : 123
✏ISBN : 1617590304
✏Available Language : English, Spanish, And French

✏Christopher Columbus and the Afrikan Holocaust Book Summary :

Africa And The Discovery Of America PDF
✏Book Title : Africa and the Discovery of America
✏Author : Leo Wiener
✏Publisher : BoD – Books on Demand
✏Release Date : 2012-01
✏Pages : 342
✏ISBN : 9783864034329
✏Available Language : English, Spanish, And French

✏Africa and the Discovery of America Book Summary : This book is about an event in history that changed the world for all times. It is a sad story that did not have to be. What Africans and the indigenous Americans have given to the world is a part of total humanity that must be respectfully considered in order to build a world where all people can walk in peace and dignity with their respective contributions accepted.

📒Early America Revisited ✍ Ivan Van Sertima

Early America Revisited PDF
✏Book Title : Early America Revisited
✏Author : Ivan Van Sertima
✏Publisher : Transaction Pub
✏Release Date : 1998
✏Pages : 209
✏ISBN : 0765804638
✏Available Language : English, Spanish, And French

✏Early America Revisited Book Summary : Early America Revisited is a vigorous defense and amplification of Ivan Van Sertima's classic work, They Came Before Columbus. The book makes a carefully balanced case for an African presence in America before Columbus' voyages. At the same time, the work in no way denies the importance of the Columbus voyages for opening up the New World to Europe, and hence changing the economic and political map of the world for all time. Van Sertima's critical cutting edge is that there is an anthropological and ethnographic dimension to the process of discovery, one in which black Africans of non-European origins played a central role. He marshals literary and pictorial evidence and shows its authenticity to be beyond question. The impact of these early discoveries is of far more than historical interest. They serve as a basis to examine anew the study of culture contacts between civilizations, and in so doing, offer a serious base to a multifaceted re-examination of earlier hypotheses of influences in both directions. Early America Revisited provides anthropological evidence about the physical presence of Africans in pre-Columbian America. It is also the study of how two peoples and cultures can lead to cross-fertilization. The borrowing of artifacts and ideas does not mean that the outsider is superior to the native, or that indigenous cultures are insignificant. Van Sertima contends that such relationships can be unpleasant as well as pleasant, conflictual as well as consensual. But, whatever the character of the interaction, its very existence merits awareness. This book is likely to engender disputes and disagreements. But there is no question that it will enrich the study of a wide range of subjects, from archaeology to anthropology, and result in profound changes in the reordering of historical priorities and pedagogy. It should be of wide interest to social scientists, historians, and all those for whom the question of race and culture is a central facet of their own work and lives. Jacqueline L. Patten Van Sertima, who is responsible for the photographic materials in this volume, has had her work exhibited at the Museum of the City of New York, the National Urban League, Columbia University, and many galleries across the country. Her publications include The Black Photographers Annual and Black Photographers.

The Encyclopedia Of Social Work PDF
✏Book Title : The Encyclopedia of Social Work
✏Author : Terry Mizrahi
✏Publisher :
✏Release Date : 2008
✏Pages :
✏ISBN : 9780195306613
✏Available Language : English, Spanish, And French

✏The Encyclopedia of Social Work Book Summary : Conveys the breadth and depth of the social work profession's collective expertise, formulated and written by social workers from many backgrounds and competencies.

Columbus And The Quest For Jerusalem PDF
✏Book Title : Columbus and the Quest for Jerusalem
✏Author : Carol Delaney
✏Publisher : Simon and Schuster
✏Release Date : 2012-07-17
✏Pages : 336
✏ISBN : 9781439102374
✏Available Language : English, Spanish, And French

✏Columbus and the Quest for Jerusalem Book Summary : An assessment of the character and motivations of Christopher Columbus reveals the passionate religious beliefs that motivated his famous voyages, and claims how he sought gold to finance a new crusade to restore Jerusalem to Christian control.